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Lost Books Referenced from the Old Testament

Julian Spriggs M.A.

This page contains a list and description of the lost books or documents which are referenced in the Old Testament.

The Book of Jasher

The Hebrew title of this book means, the Book of the Upright or the Book of the Just Man. It appears to be a collection of songs or poetry. It is referenced twice in the OT.

The first is in the Book of Joshua. After God gave Joshua victory over King Adonizedek of Jerusalem and the five kings of the Amorites at Gibeon, Joshua prayed for the sun and moon to stand still. “In the day when the LORD gave the Amorites over to the Israelites, Joshua spoke to the LORD; and he said in the sight of Israel, ‘Sun stand still at Gibeon, and Moon, in the valley of Aijalon.’ And the sun stood still, and the moon stopped until the nation took vengeance on their enemies. Is this not written in the Book of Jashar? The sun stopped in mid-heaven, and did not hurry to set for about a whole day.” (Josh 10:12-13).

The second is in Second Samuel, following the death of Saul and Jonathan, “David intoned this lamentation over Saul and his son Jonathan. (He ordered that the The Song of the Bow be taught to the people of Judah; it is written in the Book of Jashar).” (2 Sam 1:17-18).

There are several books claiming to be the Book of Jashar, but these are dismissed as later forgeries, including one published by the Mormon Church.

The Book of the Wars of the Lord

This is referred to in the Book of Numbers at the time Moses lead the Israelites along the River Arnon, which forms the boundary between the land of Moab and the land of the Amorites. “The Israelites set out, and camped in Oboth. They sent out from Oboth, and camped at Iye-abarim, in the wilderness bordering Moab toward the sunrise. From there they set out and camped in the Wadi Zered. From there they set out, and camped on the other side of the Arnon that extends from the boundary of the Amorites; for the Arnon is the boundary of Moab, between Moab and the Amorites. Wherefore it is said in the Book of the Wars of the LORD, ‘Waheb in Suphah and the wadis. The Arnon and the slopes of the wadis that extend to the seat of Ar, and lie along the border of Moab’" (Num 21:10-14).

This book probably included a historical record of the years in the wilderness, particularly accounts of the battles fought as they prepared to enter the Promised Land. It has been suggested that this is another name for the Book of Jasher. Some Jewish rabbis suggested that this is the unnamed book referred to in the Book of Exodus after the defeat of the Amalekites (Ex 17:14). It is also referenced in one of the medieval books claiming to be the Book of Jasher.

The Manner of the Kingdom

This is also known as the Book of Statutes or 3 Samuel, even though it is not named in the OT. Following the public anointing of Saul as king of Israel, “Samuel told the people the rights and duties of the kingship; and he wrote them in a book and laid it up before the LORD.” (1 Sam 10:25). This probably referred to the laws about kings in Deuteronomy (Deut 17:14-20), including not to acquire many horses, wives or riches for himself, and to have a copy of the law of God, which he should read each day, and obey it. The book was laid up before the LORD, being kept in the tabernacle.

The Book of the Chronicles (or Annals) of the Kings of Israel

This is referenced eighteen times in the Books of Kings (1 Kg 14:19, 15:31, 16:5,14,20,27, 22:40, 2 Kg 1:18, 8:23, 10:34, 13:8,12, 14:28, 15:11,15,21,26,31) in the summary at the end of the reigns of each of the kings from Jeroboam I to Pekah. This is the reference at the end of the account of the reign of Jeroboam I, “Now the rest of the acts of Jeroboam, how he warred and how he reigned, are written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Israel.” (1 Kg 14:19).

It appears to be the official court records from the northern kingdom of Israel, and the main source of historical information about the northern kingdom of Israel used by the author of the Book of Kings. Chronicles are records of current events, the official record of all the significant political events during a king's reign, which were kept for safety in the state archives. It is most likely that these were destroyed when Samaria was captured and destroyed by the Assyrians in 722 BC.

These chronicles are not the same as the Biblical books of 1 and 2 Chronicles, which were written much later following the return from exile in 539 BC.

The Book of the Chronicles (or Annals) of the Kings of Judah

This is referenced fifteen times in the Books of 1 and 2 Kings (1 Kg 14:29, 15:7,23, 22:45, 8:23, 12:19, 14:18, 15:6,36, 16:19, 20:20, 21:17,25, 23:28, 24:5 ) in the summary of the end of the reigns of most of the kings from Rehoboam to Jehoiakim. This is the reference at the end of the account of the reign of Rehoboam, “Now the rest of the acts of Rehoboam, and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Annals of the Kings of Judah?” (1 Kg 14:29).

They were the court records kept in the royal archives in Jerusalem, and the main historical source for the southern kingdom of Judah used by the author of the books of Kings. It contains no reference to queen Athaliah, who usurped the throne for seven years, or her son Ahaziah. It is most likely that these were destroyed when Jerusalem was captured in 598 BC, or when it was destroyed in 586 BC by the Babylonians.

Again, these are not the same as the Biblical books of Chronicles.

The Acts of Solomon

This is referenced once, in the summary at the end of the reign of Solomon. “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, all that he did as well as his wisdom, are they not written in the Book of the Acts of Solomon” (1 Kings 11:41). It was the source of information for the author of the Book of Kings about the reign of Solomon. It contained the court records of the significant political events, as well as records of his wisdom, and other biographical material. It could also have included a copy of the treaty between Solomon and Hiram of Tyre.

It was still in existence when the Book of Kings was compiled, but probably destroyed along with the Annals of the Kings of Judah when Jerusalem was captured or destroyed by the Babylonians.

Books referenced in the Books of Chronicles

The author of 1 and 2 Chronicles, who was probably Ezra, gives many references to his sources of information. These include official government records, as well as writing and records from the prophets. These would be documents that were taken to Babylon by the exiles, where they were preserved and brought back to the Land by the returning exiles.

The Book of the Kings of Israel

This is referenced twice in the Books of Chronicles. The first is at the conclusion of the long genealogy at the start of 1 Chronicles, “So all Israel was enrolled by genealogies; and these are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel.” (1 Chr 9:1).

The second is in the summary of the reign of Jehoshaphat, “Now the rest of the acts of Jehoshaphat, from first to last, are written in the Annals of Jehu son of Hanani, which are recorded in the Book of the Kings of Israel” (2 Chr 20:34). Jehu son of Hanani was a prophet during the reign of Baasha of Israel (1 Kg 16:1-7), and during the reign of Jehoshaphat of Judah (2 Chr 19:2).

This book could be the Annals of the Kings of Israel or Judah described above.

The Annals or Chronicles of King David

These were probably court records from the reign of David, including political and military events. It may have been written by the Biblical prophet Nathan.

The author of Chronicles says that the results of the census made by David were not entered into the Annals of King David. “David did not count those below twenty years of age, for the LORD has promised to make Israel as numerous as the stars of heaven. Joab son of Zeruiah began to count them, but did not finish; yet wrath came upon Israel for this, and the number was not entered into the account of the Annals of King David.” (1 Chr 27:24)

The Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel

This is referenced seven times in the Book of 2 Chronicles, in the summary of the reigns of each of the following kings: Asa (16:11), Amaziah (25:26), Jotham (27:7), Ahaz (28:26), Hezekiah (32:32), Josiah (35:27) and Jehoiakim (36:8). This is the reference for Asa, “The acts of Asa, from first to last, are written in the Book of the Kings of Israel and Judah.” (2 Chr 16:11). It is possible that these are references to the biblical book of Kings.

The Acts or Annals of the Kings of Israel.

This is also called The Acts and Prayers of Manasseh, and may be the same as the Annals of the Kings of Judah and Israel. This is referenced once in the summary at the end of the account of the reign of the wicked King Manasseh, “Now the rest of the acts of Manasseh, his prayer to his God, and the words of the seers who spoke to him in the name of the LORD God of Israel, these are in the Annals of the Kings of Israel.” (2 Chr 33:18). There is also a reference to another book referred to as the records of the seers (2 Chr 33:19), which is described below.

The Commentary, or Midrash, on the Book of the Kings

This is referenced once in the Book of 2 Chronicles, in the summary of the reign of Joash, “Accounts of his (Joash’s) sons, and of the many oracles against him, and the rebuilding of the house of God are written in the Commentary on the Book of Kings. And his son Amaziah succeeded him.” (2 Chr 24:27). This book is lost, and nothing is known about it.

The written instructions of David the King of Israel, and the written instructions of Solomon his Son.

This unnamed document is referred to during the description of the Passover that was celebrated by King Josiah, when the holy ark was placed in the temple built by Solomon. “Make preparations by your ancestral houses by your divisions, following the written instructions of King David of Israel and the written instructions of his son Solomon” (2 Chr 35:4).

References to prophetic writing and records

The author also refers to the writings of various prophets. These could contain the words they brought from God, as well as details of their lives and ministry as a prophet.

Samuel, Nathan and Gad

In the summary of the reign of David, references are made to records of three prophets, Samuel, Nathan and Gad, “Now the acts of King David, from first to last, are written in the records of the seer Samuel, and in the records of the prophet Nathan, and in the records of the seer Gad, with accounts of all his rule and his might and of the events that befell him and Israel and all the kingdoms of the earth” (1 Chr 29:29). These were three of the prophets during the reign of David.

The records of Samuel the Seer

This is also called The Book of Samuel the Seer, or The Acts of Samuel the Seer. This would describe the life and ministry of the prophet Samuel. It may be referencing the biblical book of Samuel, originally one book in the Hebrew Scriptures.

The records of the prophet Nathan

This is also called the Book of Nathan the Prophet, or the Acts (or History) of Nathan the Prophet. Nathan was the prophet who rebuked David following his adultery with Bathsheba (2 Sam 12:1). This book is also referenced in the summary of the reign of Solomon, along with the prophets Ahijah and Iddo (2 Chr 9:29), see below.

The records of the seer Gad

This is also called Gad the Seer, or The Acts of Gad the Seer. The prophet Gad was sent by God to rebuke David after he took a census of Israel (2 Chr 21:9-13, 18-19).

Nathan, Ahijah and Iddo

In the summary of the reign of Solomon, references are made to the records of three prophets, Nathan, Ahijah and Iddo, “Now the rest of the acts of Solomon, from first to last, are they not written in the history of the prophet Nathan, and in the prophecy of Ahijah the Shilonite, and in the visions of the seer Iddo concerning Jeroboam son of Nebat” (2 Chr 9:29).

The history of the prophet Nathan is described above.

The prophecy of Ahijah the Shilohite

Ahijah was the prophet who brought God’s word to Jeroboam I, the first king of the northern kingdom of Israel (1 Kg 14:2-18), condemning him for what the Book of Kings refers to as ‘the sin of Jeroboam’, and predicting the exile beyond the River Euphrates. The reference to the prophecy of Ahijah may be to this passage in the First Book of Kings, rather than to a distinct document.

The Visions of Iddo the seer

This is also called the Story or Annals of the Prophet Iddo. Iddo was an otherwise unknown prophet during the reigns of the three kings, Solomon, Rehoboam and Abijah in Judah.

This book is referenced in the summary of the reign of Solomon as described above. It is also referenced in the summary of the reign of Rehoboam, “Now the acts of Rehoboam, from first to last, are they not written in the records of the prophet Shemaiah and of the seer Iddo, recorded by genealogy?” (2 Chr 12:15). In the summary of the reign of Abijah, “The rest of the acts of Abijah, his behaviour and his deeds, are written in the story of the prophet Iddo” (2 Chr 13:22)

The records of the prophet Shemaiah

As noted above, in the summary of the reign of Rehoboam, reference is also made to the records of the prophet Shemaiah (2 Chr 12:15). It was Shemaiah who brought the word from God commanding Rehoboam not to go and fight against Jeroboam, following the rebellion of the northern ten tribes. A command that Rehoboam actually obeyed. (2 Chr 11:11-4). He also brought a word to Rehoboam when Shishak of Egypt attacked Judah, saying that because Rehoboam had abandoned God, God will abandon Judah to Shishak (2 Chr 12:5-8).

The Acts of Uzziah, or the book by the prophet Isaiah

Isaiah son of Amoz prophesied during the reigns of four of the kings of Judah, including Uzziah and Hezekiah (Is 1:1).

In the summary of the reign of Uzziah, there is this reference, “Now the rest of the acts of Uzziah, from first to last, the prophet Isaiah son of Amoz wrote.” (2 Chr 26:22). And in the summary of the reign of Hezekiah is this reference, “Now the rest of the acts of Hezekiah, and his good deeds, are written in the vision of the prophet Isaiah son of Amoz in the Book of the Kings of Judah and Israel” (2 Chr 32:32).

This probably refers to the OT Book of Isaiah. The second reference could refer to the account about Hezekiah in 2 Kings (2 Kg 18:13 - 2 Kg 21:19), a copy of which also appears in the Book of Isaiah (Is 36-39).

The Chronicles of the seers, or the Sayings of Hozai

This is the second book referenced in the summary of the reign of Manasseh, “His prayer, and how God received his entreaty, all his sin and his faithlessness, the sites on which he built high places and set up the sacred poles and the images, before he humbled himself, these are written in the records of the seers” (2 Chr 33:19).

It also contains historical information about the terrible reign of Manasseh, with a particular emphasis on this idolatry and rebellion against Yahweh.

The Laments for Josiah

This is referenced after the tragic death of Josiah at the Battle of Megiddo in 609 BC, “All Judah and Jerusalem mourned for Josiah. Jeremiah also uttered a lament for Josiah, and all the singing men and singing women have spoken of Josiah in their laments to this day. They made these a custom in Israel; they are recorded in the Laments” (2 Chr 35:25).

This is almost certainly not referring to the OT Book of Lamentations, which Jeremiah wrote about twenty years later following the fall of Jerusalem in 586 BC. The mourning for Josiah is also described in the apocryphal book of 1 Esdras (1 Esdras 1;32), but without any mention of the writing of the lamentation. It is likely that this book was part of a larger collection of laments held in the temple or palace archives in Jerusalem.

Persian records of King Ahasuerus

The Book of the Annals of the Persian king Ahasuerus, his official court record, is referenced three times in the book of Esther, where the annals play a significant part in the story of Esther and Mordecai, “In those days, while Mordecai was sitting at the king’s gate, Bigthan and Teresh, two of the king’s eunuchs, who guarded the threshold, became angry and conspired to assissinate King Ahaserus. But the matter came to the knowledge of Mordecai, and he told it to Queen Esther, and Esther told the king in the name of Mordecai. When the affair was investigated and found to be so, both the men were hanged on the gallows. It was recorded in the book of the annals in the presence of the king.” (Est 2:20-23). “On that night the king could not sleep, and he gave orders to bring the book of records, the annals, and they were read to the king.” (Est 6:1). “King Ahasuerus laid tribute on the land and on the islands of the sea. All the acts of his power and might, and the full account of the high honour of Mordecai, to which the king advanced him, are they not written in the annals of the kings of Media and Persia?” (Est 10:1-2).

Post exilic - The Book of the Annals

Another book of annals is referenced in the Book of Nehemiah, “The Levites, heads of ancestral houses, were recorded in the Book of the Annals until the days of Johanan son of Eliashib.” (Neh 12:23). This appears to contain official records from the post-exilic period, particularly naming the priests and Levites.

The Bible

Pages which look at issues relevant to the whole Bible, such as the Canon of Scripture, as well as doctrinal and theological issues. There are also pages about the Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha and 'lost books' of the Old Testament.

Also included are lists of the quotations of the OT in the NT, and passages of the OT quoted in the NT.

Why These 66 Books?
Books in the Hebrew Scriptures
Quotations in NT From OT
OT Passages Quoted in NT
History of the English Bible
Twelve Books of the Apocrypha
The Pseudepigrapha - False Writings
Lost Books Referenced in OT

Old Testament Overview

This is a series of six pages which give a historical overview through the Old Testament and the inter-testamental period, showing where each OT book fits into the history of Israel.

OT 1: Creation and Patriarchs
OT 2: Exodus and Wilderness
OT 3: Conquest and Monarchy
OT 4: Divided kingdom and Exile
OT 5: Return from Exile
OT 6: 400 Silent Years

New Testament Overview

This is a series of five pages which give a historical overview through the New Testament, focusing on the Ministry of Jesus, Paul's missionary journeys, and the later first century. Again, it shows where each book of the NT fits into the history of the first century.

NT 1: Life and Ministry of Jesus
NT 2: Birth of the Church
NT 3: Paul's Missionary Journeys
NT 4: Paul's Imprisonment
NT 5: John and Later NT

Introductions to Old Testament Books

This is an almost complete collection of introductions to each of the books in the Old Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Genesis Exodus Leviticus
Numbers Deuteronomy

Joshua Judges Ruth
1 & 2 Samuel 1 & 2 Kings Chronicles
Ezra & Nehemiah Esther

Job Psalms Proverbs

Isaiah Jeremiah Lamentations
Ezekiel Daniel

Hosea Joel Amos
Obadiah Jonah Micah
Nahum Habakkuk Zephaniah
Haggai Zechariah Malachi

Introductions to New Testament Books

This is a collection of introductions to each of the 27 books in the New Testament. Each contains information about the authorship, date, historical setting and main themes of the book.

Matthew's Gospel Mark's Gospel Luke's Gospel
John's Gospel

Book of Acts

Romans 1 Corinthians 2 Corinthians
Galatians Ephesians Philippians
Colossians 1 & 2 Thessalonians 1 Timothy
2 Timothy Titus Philemon

Hebrews James 1 Peter
2 Peter 1 John 2 & 3 John
Jude

Revelation

Old Testament History

Information about the different nations surrounding Israel, and other articles concerning Old Testament history and the inter-testamental period.

Canaanite Religion
Israel's Enemies During the Conquest
Syria / Aram
The Assyrian Empire
Babylon and its History
The Persian Empire
The Greek Empire
The 400 Silent Years
The Ptolemies and Seleucids
Antiochus IV - Epiphanes

Old Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for OT studies. These include a list of the people named in the OT and confirmed by archaeology. There are also pages to convert the different units of measure in the OT, such as the talent, cubit and ephah into modern units.

More theological topics include warfare in the ancient world, the Holy Spirit in the OT, and types of Jesus in the OT.

OT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Jewish Calendar
The Importance of Paradox
Talent Converter (weights)
Cubit Converter (lengths)
OT People Search
Ephah Converter (volumes)
Holy War in the Ancient World
The Holy Spirit in the OT
Types of Jesus in the OT

Studies in the Pentateuch (Gen - Deut)

A series of articles covering studies in the five books of Moses. Studies in the Book of Genesis look at the historical nature of the early chapters of Genesis, the Tower of Babel and the Table of the Nations.

There are also pages about covenants, the sacrifices and offerings, the Jewish festivals and the tabernacle, as well as the issue of tithing.

Are chapters 1-11 of Genesis historical?
Chronology of the Flood
Genealogies of the Patriarchs
Table of the Nations (Gen 10)
Tower of Babel (Gen 11:1-9)

Authorship of the Pentateuch
Chronology of the Wilderness Years
Names of God in the OT
Covenants in the OT
The Ten Commandments
The Tabernacle and its Theology
Sacrifices and Offerings
The Jewish Festivals
Balaam and Balak
Tithing
Highlights from Deuteronomy
Overview of Deuteronomy

Studies in the Old Testament History Books (Josh - Esther)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the history books. These include a list of the dates of the kings of Israel and Judah, a summary of the kings of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and studies of Solomon, Jeroboam and Josiah.

There are also pages describing some of the historical events of the period, including the Syro-Ephraimite War, and the Assyrian invasion of Judah in 701 BC.

Dates of the Kings of Judah and Israel
King Solomon
The Kings of Israel
King Jeroboam I of Israel
The Syro-Ephraimite War (735 BC)
Sennacherib's Invasion of Judah (701 BC)
King Josiah of Judah
Differences Between Kings and Chronicles
Chronology of the post-exilic period

Studies in the Old Testament Prophets (Is - Mal)

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the OT prophets. These include a page looking at the way the prophets look ahead into their future, a page looking at the question of whether Satan is a fallen angel, and a page studying the seventy weeks of Daniel.

There are also a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of two of the books:
Isaiah (13 pages) and Daniel (10 pages).

Prophets and the Future
The Call of Jeremiah (Jer 1)
The Fall of Satan? (Is 14, Ezek 28)
Daniel Commentary (10 pages)
Isaiah Commentary (13 pages)
Formation of the Book of Jeremiah


Daniel's Seventy Weeks (Dan 9:24-27)

New Testament Studies

A series of articles covering more general topics for NT studies. These include a list of the people in the NT confirmed by archaeology.

More theological topics include the Kingdom of God and the Coming of Christ.

NT People Confirmed by Archaeology
The Kingdom of God / Heaven
Parousia (Coming of Christ)
The Importance of Paradox

Studies in the Four Gospels (Matt - John)

A series of articles covering various studies in the four gospels. These include a list of the unique passages in each of the Synoptic Gospels and helpful information about the parables and how to interpret them.

Some articles look at the life and ministry of Jesus, including his genealogy, birth narratives, transfiguration, the triumphal entry into Jerusalem, and the seating arrangements at the Last Supper.

More theological topics include the teaching about the Holy Spirit as the Paraclete and whether John the Baptist fulfilled the predictions of the coming of Elijah.

Unique Passages in the Synoptic Gospels
The SynopticProblem
Genealogy of Jesus (Matt 1)
Birth Narratives of Jesus
Understanding the Parables
Peter's Confession and the Transfiguration
Was John the Baptist Elijah?
The Triumphal Entry
The Olivet Discourse (Mark 13)
Important themes in John's Gospel
John's Gospel Prologue (John 1)
Jesus Fulfilling Jewish Festivals
Reclining at Table at the Last Supper
The Holy Spirit as the Paraclete

Studies in the Book of Acts and the New Testament Letters

A series of articles covering various studies in the Book of Acts and the Letters, including Paul's letters. These include a page studying the messages given by the apostles in the Book of Acts, and the information about the financial collection that Paul made during his third missionary journey. More theological topics include Paul's teaching on Jesus as the last Adam, and descriptions of the church such as the body of Christ and the temple, as well as a look at redemption and the issue of fallen angels.

There are a series of pages giving a commentary through the text of five of the books:
Romans (7 pages), 1 Corinthians (7 pages), Galatians (3 pages), Philemon (1 page) and Hebrews (7 pages)

Apostolic Messages in the Book of Acts
Paul and His Apostleship
Collection for the Saints
The Church Described as a Temple
Church as the Body of Christ
Jesus as the Last Adam
Food Offered to Idols
Paul's Teaching on Headcoverings
Who are the Fallen Angels
The Meaning of Redemption
What is the Church?

Romans Commentary (7 pages)

1 Corinthians Commentary (7 pages)

Galatians Commentary (3 pages)

Philemon Commentary (1 page)

Hebrews Commentary (7 pages)

Studies in the Book of Revelation

Articles containing studies and helpful information for the study of the Book of Revelation and topics concerning Eschatology (the study of end-times).

These include a description of the structure of the book, a comparison and contrast between the good and evil characters in the book and a list of the many allusions to the OT. For the seven churches, there is a page which gives links to their location on Google maps.

There is a page studying the important theme of Jesus as the Lamb, which forms the central theological truth of the book. There are pages looking at the major views of the Millennium, as well as the rapture and tribulation, as well as a list of dates of the second coming that have been mistakenly predicted through history.

There is also a series of ten pages giving a detailed commentry through the text of the Book of Revelation.

Introduction to the Book of Revelation
Characters Introduced in the Book
Structure of Revelation
List of Allusions to OT
The Description of Jesus as the Lamb
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
The Nero Redivius Myth
The Millennium (1000 years)
The Rapture and the Tribulation
Different Approaches to Revelation
Predicted Dates of the Second Coming

Revelation Commentary (10 pages)

How to do Inductive Bible Study

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study the Bible inductively, by asking a series of simple questions. There are lists of observation and interpretation questions, as well as information about the structure and historical background of biblical books, as well as a list of the different types of figures of speech used in the Bible. There is also a page giving helpful tips on how to apply the Scriptures personally.

How to Study the Bible Inductively
I. The Inductive Study Method
II. Observation Questions
III. Interpretation Questions
IV. Structure of Books
V. Determining the Historical background
VI. Identifying Figures of Speech
VII. Personal Application
VIII. Text Layout

Types of Literature in the Bible

These are a series of pages giving practical help showing how to study each of the different types of book in the Bible by appreciating the type of literature being used. These include historical narrative, law, wisdom, prophets, Gospels, Acts, letters and Revelation.

It is most important that when reading the Bible we are taking note of the type of literature we are reading. Each type needs to be considered and interpreted differently as they have different purposes.

How to Understand OT Narratives
How to Understand OT Law
Hebrew Poetry
OT Wisdom Literature
Understanding the OT Prophets
The Four Gospels
The Parables of Jesus
The Book of Acts
How to Understand the NT Letters
Studying End Times (Eschatology)
The Book of Revelation

Geography and Archaeology

These are a series of pages giving geographical and archaeological information relevant to the study of the Bible. There is a page where you can search for a particular geographical location and locate it on Google maps, as well as viewing photographs on other sites.

There are also pages with photographs from Ephesus and Corinth.

Search for Geographical Locations
Major Archaeological Sites in Israel
Archaeological Sites in Assyria, Babylon and Persia
Virtual Paul's Missionary Journeys
Virtual Seven Churches of Revelation
Photos of the City of Corinth
Photos of the City of Ephesus

Biblical Archaeology in Museums around the world

A page with a facility to search for artifacts held in museums around the world which have a connection with the Bible. These give information about each artifact, as well as links to the museum's collection website where available showing high resolution photographs of the artifact.

There is also page of photographs from the Israel Museum in Jerusalem of important artifacts.

Search Museums for Biblical Archaeology
Israel Museum Photos

Difficult Theological and Ethical Questions

These are a series of pages looking at some of the more difficult questions of Christian theology, including war, suffering, disappointment and what happens to those who have never heard the Gospel.

Christian Ethics
Never Heard the Gospel
Is there Ever a Just War?
Why Does God Allow Suffering
Handling Disappointment

How to Preach

These are a series of pages giving a practical step-by-step explanation of the process of preparing a message for preaching, and how to lead a small group Bible study.

What is Preaching?
I. Two Approaches to Preaching
II. Study a Passage for Preaching
III. Creating a Message Outline
IV. Making Preaching Relevant
V. Presentation and Public Speaking
VI. Preaching Feedback and Critique
Leading a Small Group Bible Study

Information for SBS staff members

Two pages particularly relevant for people serving as staff on the School of Biblical Studies (SBS) in YWAM. One gives helpful instruction about how to prepare to teach on a book in the SBS. The other gives a list of recommended topics which can be taught about for each book of the Bible.

Teaching on SBS Book Topics for SBS